Heart Failure as a Systemic Disease: Role of Inflammation
Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Würzburg ◇ Würzburg, Germany
Heart failure is a common disease that can usually affect the other organs. The presence of a common link between heart failure and its comorbidities, such as muscle wasting, renal failure, and major depression, remains to be elucidated. Heart failure leads to activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, the immune system cascades are important for the development of most comorbidities. Herein, we discussed the hypothesis that activation of the immune system in the early phase of heart failure is relevant in the pathophysiology of the comorbidities that develop in the subsequent course of the disease.
Key words: heart failure; comorbidities; innate immune system; adaptive immune system
© 2017 特定非営利活動法人日本小児循環器学会© 2017 Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
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