Basic and Comprehensive Outlines of Cardiovascular Embryology and Morphogenesis
Department of Education and Research Promotion, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center ◇ Osaka, Japan
Congenital heart disease is a multifactorial inheritance disorder that is induced by genetic and environmental factors during morphogenesis of the cardiovascular system in the embryos. Cardiac embryology plays an important role in reaching a definitive diagnosis, understanding the pathophysiology of disease, selecting the most appropriate medical/surgical treatment, and predicting complications and prognosis. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the process involved in cardiac embryology is essential for pediatric cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. In this review, cardiac embryology and cardiovascular morphogenesis are discussed to assist physicians in understanding the etiological mechanisms of congenital heart disease. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of congenital heart disease using genetically engineered mice are available in any expertized textbooks and journals. Thus, in this review, basic and comprehensive outlines of cardiac embryology and morphogenesis are presented using illustrations.
Key words: cardiovascular morphogenesis; congenital heart disease; cardiac embryology
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