Journal of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery

Online ISSN: 2433-1783 Print ISSN: 2433-2720
Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Academy Center, 358-5 Yamabuki-cho, Shinju-ku, Tokyo 162-0801, Japan
Journal of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery 8(1): 1-7 (2024)

Educational ReviewEducational Review

Diagnostic Nomenclature and Expression Formats for Cardiac Malformations: Confusions, Controversies, Conflicts, Convictions, Whatsoever!

Fujimidai-dori Clinic ◇ Tokyo, Japan

発行日:2024年2月29日Published: February 29, 2024

Cardiac malformations are described using several formats of expression, mainly based on three different backgrounds; that is, either from the aspect of embryological development, via a morphological approach, or by means of clinical classifications. We come across occasionally, or probably better to say often, a circumstance in which people misunderstand or are confused with diagnoses of the heart lesions. Common nomenclature for congenital heart diseases is nearly achieved, but not complete yet. This on-going attempt is also being accompanied by the developing coding system. The coding system might not cover all information the heart team needs to share in really practical settings. As long as the way how to describe heart lesions is not perfectly unified, we have to communicate reasonably well realizing that there are several standpoints for diagnoses of cardiac malformations. Behind each word, there are underlying thoughts we should note. Words are derived from concepts, and, at the same time, promote the concepts.

Key words: cardiac morphology; diagnosis; heart malformation; sequential segmental analysis; congenital heart disease

Morphology and Embryology in Congenital Heart Disease—Don’t You Have a Friend Like This?

One day, George sat in a lecture room together with his peers, awaiting the arrival of a professor of cardiac morphology. The professor was famous for a systematic approach to analyzing the structure of heart defects. George had only a limited knowledge of congenital cardiac malformations. He attempted to read a textbook on cardiac embryology three years ago when he was a medical student. He remembered that he was not able to complete any of the chapters. Each time he started from the beginning of a chapter to make sure that he could understand perfectly, the book always turned out to be a nice pillow on his desk within 20 minutes. To him, pictures were just like abstract artistic shapes, their titles being labelled in Latin. On the basis of this discouraging memory, he was hoping that today’s lecture would not be a further setback.

“Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.” The professor began his talk brightly. With his loud and clear voice, I could not sleep through his lecture, George thought. The professor explained very precisely the architecture of the normal heart. Not too fast, not too detailed, not too specialized. His interactive presentation created a nice atmosphere. Subsequently, he moved on to one example. He showed how to analyze the abnormally structured heart step by step. At the end, the descriptive list on the specimen became extensive (Table 1a). George realized that he needs some verbal tools to find out features of a structure in detail. To recognize an object is rather different from just to see it; the former needs active participation of mind, he thought. When George went back home, however, he was not entirely sure whether he could recall all the key points the professor demonstrated during the day and whether he could apply the principle to each case he might have at the time of examination. Therefore, he decided to buy a book written by the professor. He actually read the book with great interest. The way of thinking termed “sequential segmental analysis” seemed to be a good conceptual tool to him. He felt that everything would become clear-cut when he used such a systematic and scientific approach.

Table 1 An example of diagnostic descriptions on the basis of three major formats
(a) Purely morphologic basis(b) with embryologic background(c) for hasty clinicians
usual atrial arrangementsitus solitus
- morphologically right atrial appendage on the right- SVC and IVC to right atrium on the right
and left atrial appendage on the leftPVs to left atrium on the left
- right superior caval vein connected to the right atrium
- left superior caval vein returning via the coronary sinus- left SVC to right atrium via coronary sinus- PLSVC
- inferior caval vein connected to the right atrium
- pulmonary veins connected normally to the left atrium
- small atrial septal defect at the oval fossa- small ostium secondum atrial septal defect- restrictive ASD
univentricular atrioventricular connectiontricuspid atresia [SDD]TA/TGA (type IIc)
- absent right atrioventricular connection
- the left atrium connected to the dominant
morphologically left ventricle
- cleft in anterior leaflet of left atrioventricular valve- cleft mitral valve- mitral cleft
- the small and incomplete morphologically right- d-loop ventricles
ventricle on the right anterior to the left ventricle
- right hand ventricular topology
- small interventricular communication- small bulbo-ventricular foramen- restrictive VSD
- ventricular apex pointing to the left- levocardia
discordant ventriculo-arterial connectiontransposition of great arteries
- the aorta arising from the right ventricle and the
pulmonary trunk arising from the left ventricle
- the aorta right anterior to the pulmonary trunk- d-loop great arteries- d-TGA
- pulmonary trunk larger than ascending aorta
- narrow subaortic channel- subaortic stenosis- SAS
coarctation of the aortapre-ductal coarctationCoA
- three neck vessels from the aortic arch
- narrow patent arterial duct- narrow patent ductus arteriosus- small PDA
- aortic arch left to the trachea- left aortic arch- left arch
- normally branching pulmonary arteries
An example of the so-called classical “tricuspid atresia” is documented. A morphological stance provides a precise list of sequential segmental analysis, but extensive and somehow verbose. An embryological approach demands certain knowledge in this field, and it may not be straightforward to understand the entire view. A clinical shorthand sounds concise and fashionable; still its users should pay attention to historical evolution of background ideas or the potential of misunderstanding/miscommunication.

One year later, George had an opportunity to attend a short course on congenital heart disease abroad. He was hoping to augment his knowledge in addition to the morphologic approach he had learned. He did not suspect that topics would be discussed without using the “sequential segmental analysis” taught by the professor. Therefore, he was quite shocked to find that he could not understand completely what people were talking about. “Bilateral conus,” “endocardial cushion,” “Malposition of the great arteries,” “SDL,” “polysplenia,” and so on. He felt he was on another planet. He wondered if everything might have changed for diagnoses of cardiac malformations during the past 12 months. After finishing the afternoon session of the first day, he asked one of the young participants in a friendly manner. “I did not understand very well the terminology the lecturers used today. Where were they from? What does l-loop mean?” “Well, you need to study more about the background of heart defects. Congenital malformations cannot be understood without knowledge of embryology, you see,” the young man replied bluntly. “Embryology!” George exclaimed in his mind. “That’s what I could not cope with in the past,” a feeling of despair took the shine out of his eyes. After supper, he was still reflecting on what he had listened to during the day. “Am I hopeless? Is this field beyond my ability? But, probably, I could have understood some of the contents with knowledge of “sequential segmental analysis,” couldn’t I?” That night, George had a nightmare in which he was confronted with a menu written in Arabic characters and unable to order anything for dinner.

Next day, the morning session was all right; imaging modalities were explained on relatively simple diseases. At lunch time, a senior lecturer sat next to George and gently asked, “How is the course going? Everything clear?” George replied frankly, “I was confused yesterday. I do not have enough knowledge of embryology. I could not understand the terminology and underlying concepts very well. I previously learned the basis of sequential segmental analysis. Is that completely useless?” The gentleman smiled and quietly said, “Embryology is an important aspect in order to understand congenital diseases. Providing background knowledge allows us to interpret and explain features of the malformed hearts. Having said that, it is not the only approach we have. Purely morphological description can, in practice, show us detailed architecture, whereas other designated stereotypes are also clinically relevant. I have to admit there are conflicts within the nomenclatures because we intend to establish academic terms as precisely and as specifically as possible. Still, the essence of these scientific dogmas exists commonly in the ultimate understanding of congenital heart diseases. By the way, did you know that the systematic approach to cardiac segments and their sequence was derived from an embryologic context initially?” “Interesting,” said George. “In other words, the same condition is described in different languages according to academic standpoints, isn’t it?” “That’s correct.” “Diagnoses made on a common matrix would have been easier for a beginner like me to understand. How do you describe this sort of malformation for example?” George illustrated an example that was nicely explained before on the basis of morphology. The gentleman explained his thought and its background patiently (Table 1b). George thanked him greatly for the fruitful personal tuition.

Soon after starting specialist training in cardiology a couple of years later, George came across a patient with malformations similar to that memorable case. When George began to present the morphologic diagnoses to a surgeon, he impatiently cut George’s words short. “TA/TGA and CoA, isn’t it? (Table 1c). How restrictive is the VSD? Is the aortic valve bicuspid? The aortic arch hypoplastic? Body weight? On prostaglandin? Lactate level? ……” George was flustered. The surgeon immediately taught George what to say, how, and why. “The expression you attempted initially should be precise, but it is far too long-winded for a busy surgeon like me,” he added impishly. “If you presented the case at a scientific meeting in your manner, you would use half of your limited presentation time just for the morphologic diagnoses!” This time, George was not frustrated. “Another stance,” he muttered to himself. Beyond accuracy, well-summarized diagnosis and clinical key points were needed. He also learned that attention should be paid to presence or absence of potentially possible impediments.

George has expanded his knowledge on many fronts. He experienced cardiology, particularly for congenital heart disease, at several institutions all over the world. He came to realize that, not only nomenclature of diagnoses, but also background concepts and practical skills of treatments were really varied. He felt people were occasionally on quite different wavelengths. “Sometime, we might be able to build up a consensus in a true sense. At present, at least, we need to prepare and to widen the scope for deeper knowledge so as to translate each opinion into a meaningful and non-misleading one,” he calmly said to his new trainee.

Terminology for Congenital Heart Disease—Do You Need a Dictionary?

It should be useful to have a definitive dictionary of terminology in congenital heart diseases. As is often the case with dictionaries, for example between two languages, different grammars and background cultures make it very difficult to give exacting one-to-one correspondence in everything. No dictionary guarantees perfect translation on its own. Nonetheless, some examples are provided by listing similar, or comparable, expressions in comparison (Table 2).

Table 2 Different terminology
Morphological stanceEmbryological stance
Based on the nature of the appendageBased on veno-atrial connection and splenic status
usual atrial arrangementsitus solitus
mirror image arrangementsitus inversus
right isomerism of atrial appendageasplenia
left isomerism of atrial appendagepolysplenia
(situs ambiguous no longer used)
[each of four headings not always corresponding to that of the other group]
biventricular atrioventricular connection
concordant atrioventricular connection[S, D, ( )] or [I, L, ( )]
discordant atrioventricular connection[S, L, ( )] or [I, D, ( )]
exceptional patterns in isomerism
univentricular atrioventricular connection
absent right atrioventricular connectiontricuspid atresia
absent left atrioventricular connectionmitral atresia
(no connection either to morphologically left or right ventricle)(irrespective of right or left, depending of ventricular looping)
double inlet left ventricle (small and incomplete right ventricle)single LV
double inlet right ventricle (rudimentary left ventricle)single RV
double inlet indeterminate ventricle (true single ventricle)(double inlet for separate valves, common inlet for a common valve)
(either through separate valves or a common valve)common ventricle (very large VSD)
concordant ventriculo-arterial connection[S, ( ), N]
discordant ventriculo-arterial connectiontransposition of great arteries, d-TGA, l-TGA
double outlet right ventricle (50% rule)malposition of great arteries, d-MGA, l-MGA
double outlet left ventricle (50% rule)cono-truncal criss-cross
single outlet with pulmonary atresiatetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia
(aorta either from left or right ventricle)DORV/TGA with pulmonary atresia
single outlet with aortic atresiaaortic atresia
(pulmonary trunk either from left or right ventricle)
common arterial trunkpersistent truncus arteriosus
atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)common atrioventricular canal
(common atrioventricular valve)endocardial cushion defect
(separate atrioventricular valve)(complete/partial/intermediate/variant form)
(ASD component present, no VSD component)ostium primum defect
complete transposition
usual/mirror imaged atrial arrangement with
concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arteriald-transposition, TGA [SDD]/[ILL], simple TGA
congenitally corrected transposition
usual/mirror imaged atrial arrangement with
discordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connectionsl-transposition, TGA [SLL]/[IDD]
usual/mirror imaged atrial arrangement with
concordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connectionsanatomically corrected malposition (ACM)
with abnormal aorto-pulmonary orientation
usual/mirror imaged atrial arrangement with
concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arterialposterior TGA
connections with aorta and pulmonary trunk normally oriented
double outlet right ventricle (DORV)
one of the four patterns in ventriculo-arterial connectioncaused by incomplete absorption of subaortic conus
(50% overriding rule: defined as RV giving rise to
more than 50% of each of the semilunar valves.)
variations in relation to VSD orientationvariation in relation to aorto-pulmonary orientation
subaortic VSD[SDD]/[SDL]
subpulmonary VSDtrue or false Taussig-Bing, complex TGA
doubly committed VSD (outlet septum lacking)
non-committed VSD (remote from either aortic or pulmonary)
tetralogy of Fallot with DORV can coexistDORV cannot coexist with tetralogy of Fallot
ventricular septal defect (VSD)
juxta-arterial and doubly-committed VSDdistal conus defect
supra-cristal VSD
atrial septal defect (ASD)
oval fossa type atrial septal defectostium secondum ASD
sinus venosus interatrial communicationsinus venosus ASD
ventricular structures
outlet septumconus/infundibular septum
septo-marginal trabeculationtrabeculo-septo-marginalis
interventricular communication/foramenbulbo-ventricular foramen
ventriculo-infundibular foldsubaortic conus
A morphological stance and an embryological stance do share many terms to describe heart malformations in detail. Some expressions, nonetheless, are rather discordant with each other. The different wording reflects different processes and backgrounds of thoughts.

Clinical Classifications of Congenital Heart Disease—Can You Memorize All Alpha-Numeric Stereotypes?

To classify stereotypes or subtypes of a spectrum of malformations, headings were given consisting of abbreviations and figures in the past (Table 3). Some people continue to use such headings with a sense of pride that they have studied meticulously the past literature, while others avoid using insipid typification with the explanation that they are confused with the digits and alphabets. If a classification is not well adopted, communication and understanding of real malformations are difficult.

Table 3 Clinical shorthand
Abbreviations and categoriesStereotypes
TA1)tricuspid atresia
Iconcordant ventriculo-arterial connection (Aorta from LV)
IItransposition of great arteries (Aorta from RV)
-awith pulmonary atresia
-bwith pulmonary stenosis
-cno pulmonary stenosis
IIIabsent left atrioventricular connection (RA opening to LV)
TGA2)transposition of great arteries
Icomplete transposition with intact ventricular septum
IIcomplete transposition with ventricular septal defect
IIItransposition with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis (overriding aorta)
IVtransposition with intact ventricular septum and pulmonary stenosis (non-dynamic obstruction)
Patterns of the coronary arteriesbased on
Shaher3)investigation using morphologic specimens
Yacoub4)surgical experiences
Leiden convention5)investigation using morphologic specimens
Boston group6)surgical series
PTA7)persistent truncus arteriosus
Ipulmonary arteries originating via a common channel from truncus
IIpulmonary arteries close together originating directly from truncus
IIIpulmonary arteries originating bilaterally from truncus
IVpseudo-truncus (nowadays understood as tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and
major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCA)
A1-4, B (Van Praagh)8)depending on VSD, pattern of PA branching, and interruption of the aortic arch
IAA9)interruption of aortic arch
Aall three neck vessels from the aortic arch
Binterrupted between left carotid artery and left subclavian artery
Conly brachiocephalic artery originating from the ascending aorta
CoA10)coarctation of the aorta
post-ductal, pre-ductal 1, 2, 3 (Keith)depending on location and hypoplasia of the aortic arch
TAPVC11)totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection
Isupra-cardiac type (draining via the ascending vertical vein)
aall four pulmonary veins to the brachiocephalic vein
ball four pulmonary veins to the superior caval vein
IIcardiac type (draining to RA)
aall four pulmonary veins to the coronary sinus
ball four pulmonary veins directly to RA
IIIinfra-cardiac type (all four pulmonary veins draining via the descending vertical vein)
IVmixed type (four pulmonary veins not forming a confluence)
cor triatriatum12)divided atrial chamber
Iaccessory atrial chamber receiving all pulmonary veins and communicating with left atrium
Ano other connections (classical cor triatriatum)
Bother anomalous connections
1to right atrium directly
2with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
IIaccessory atrial chamber receiving all pulmonary veins and not communicating with left atrium
Aanomalous connection to right atrium directly
Bwith total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
IIIsubtotal cor triatriatum
Aaccessory atrial chamber receiving part of pulmonary veins and connecting to left atrium
1remaining pulmonary veins connecting normally
2remaining pulmonary veins connected anomalously
Baccessory atrial chamber receiving part of pulmonary veins and connecting to right atrium
1remaining pulmonary veins connecting normally
single ventricle13)
ALV type
BRV type
Ccommon ventricle (large VSD)
tetralogy of Fallot
I, II, III, IV, V (Kirklin)14)depending on features across the right ventricular outflow tract
I, II, III, IV, V (Kawashima)15)VSD location and manner of pulmonary stenosis/atresia
VSD16)ventricular septal defect
Kirklin Ijuxta-arterial and doubly-committed (distal conus) type
IIperimembranous outlet/trabecular type
IIIperimembranous inlet type
IVmuscular type
ASD17)atrial septal defect
Iostium primum type (atrioventricular septal defect, partial form endocardial cushion defect)
IIostium secondum type
AP window18)aortopulmonary window
Iproximal type
IIdistal type
IIItotal defect type
Valsalva sinus rupture19)
I, II, IIIv, IIIa, IV (Sakakibara-Konno)depending on location of aneurysm and dommunication
Rastelli classificationin common atrioventricular valve
A, B, C20)based on patterns of leaflets and tension apparatus
LV-RA communication21)left ventricular-right atrial shunts
II (A1, 2, 3, B1, 2, 3, 4)
IIIbased on radiologic findings
Vascular ring22)branching patterns of the thoracic aortic pathway
I A, B
II A, B, C
IVbased on embryologic development
Clinical classifications of congenital heart disease have been proposed aiming to diagnose the lesions better and to treat the patients optimally. When using handy abbreviations and numerical/alphabetic typification, exact definitions should be understood behind those symbols. Otherwise, they are misleading.

Describing Congenital Heart Disease—Which Would You Like?

Any descriptions in the literature should aim to be as accurate, as suggestive, or as practical as possible. At the same time, each one has its downside.

Detailed morphological diagnoses are occasionally extremely long. Of course, to be precise is of utmost importance. But, it is a reality that some people feel reluctant to describe every aspect in long-hand, especially in this era of text-messaging. This is more often the case in those whose first language is not English.

On the other hand, embryology requires considerable effort for understanding. We need to accumulate bulky knowledge. Precise details of normal development are still being elucidated, let alone controversies in abnormal development. Obviously, brief embryologic terms imply background insight into development of the heart, some of which may be presumptive. Because of various levels of knowledge, communication between discussants and the audience is not always smooth.

Truncated expressions also need some background knowledge of the literature, and, more importantly, they are occasionally incomplete, confusing, or misleading. Such shorthand could be used within a clinical team, but not recommended in academic circumstances.

As long as no unified way is established, at least at present, we have to communicate reasonably well realizing that there are several standpoints for diagnoses of cardiac malformations. Common nomenclature for congenital heart diseases is being negotiated23–26) or nearly established even, but not completely yet. This on-going attempt is also being accompanied by the developing coding system.27–30) Behind each word, there are underlying thoughts we should note. Words are derived from concepts, and, at the same time, promote the concepts.

Conflict of Interest

The author has nothing to declare.


1) Tandon R, Edwards JE: Tricuspid atresia: A re-evaluation and classification. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1974; 67: 530–542

2) Freedom RM, Smallhorn JF, Trusler GA: Transposition of the great arteries, in Freedom RM, Benson LM, Smallhorn JF (eds): Neonatal Heart Disease. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1992, pp179–212

3) Shaher RM, Puddu GC: Coronary arterial anatomy in complete transposition of the great vessels. Am J Cardiol 1966; 17: 355–361

4) Yacoub MH, Radley-Smith R: Anatomy of the coronary arteries in transposition of the great arteries and methods for their transfer in anatomical correction. Thorax 1978; 33: 418–424

5) Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Koenraadt WMC, Bartelings MM, et al: Coding of coronary arterial origin and branching in congenital heart disease: The modified Leiden Convention. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018; 156: 2260–2269

6) Mayer JE Jr., Sanders SP, Jonas RA, et al: Coronary artery pattern and outcome of arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. Circulation 1990; 82 Suppl: IV139–IV145

7) Collett RW, Edwards JE: Persistent truncus arteriosus: A classification according to anatomic types. Surg Clin North Am 1949; 29: 1245–1270

8) Van Praagh R, Van Praagh S: The anatomy of common aorticopulmonary trunk (truncus arteriosus communis) and its embryologic implications. A study of 57 necropsy cases. Am J Cardiol 1965; 16: 406–425

9) Celoria GC, Patton RB: Congenital absence of the aortic arch. Am Heart J 1959; 58: 407–413

10) Keith JD, Rowe RD, Vlad P: Coarctation of the aorta, in Heart Disease in Infancy and Childhood, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1967, pp213–241

11) Darling RC, Rothney WB, Craig JM: Total pulmonary venous drainage into the right side of the heart. Lab Invest 1957; 6: 44–64

12) Lucas RV, Schmidt RE: Anomalous venous connection, pulmonary and systemic. In: Moss AJ, Admas FH, Emmanoulides GC (eds), Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd ed. William & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1977, pp437–470

13) Van Praagh R, Van Praagh S, Vlad P, et al: Diagnosis of the anatomic types of single or common ventricle. Am J Cardiol 1965; 15: 345–366

14) Kirklin JW, Barratt-Boyes BG: Ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis or atresia, in Cardiac Surgery, 2nd ed, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1993, pp861–1012

15) Kawashima Y: Tetralogy of Fallot, in Kimoto S, Wada T, Idezuki Y, et al (eds): Cardiac Surgery III, New Textbook of Surgery, Nakayama-Shoten, Tokyo, 1991, pp273–308 [in Japanese]

16) Donald DE, Edwards JE, Harshbarger HG, et al: Surgical correction of ventricular septal defect: Anatomic and technical considerations. J Thorac Surg 1957; 33: 45–59

17) Lewis FJ, Taufic M, Varco RL, et al: The surgical anatomy of atrial septal defects: Experiences with repair under direct vision. Ann Surg 1955; 142: 401–415

18) Mori K, Ando M, Takao A, et al: Distal type of aortopulmonary window: Report of 4 cases. Br Heart J 1978; 40: 681–689

19) Sakakibara S, Konno S: Congenital aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva associated with ventricular septal defect: Anatomical aspects. Am Heart J 1968; 75: 595–603

20) Rastelli G, Kirklin JW, Titus JL: Anatomic observations on complete form of persistent common atrioventricular canal with special reference to atrioventricular valves. Mayo Clin Proc 1966; 41: 296–308

21) Kramer RA, Abrams HL: Radiologic aspects of operable heart disease. VII. Left ventricular-right atrial shunts. Radiology 1962; 78: 171–179

22) Swewart JR, Kincaid OW, Edwards JE: An atlas of vascular rings and related malformations of the aortic arch system, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 1964, pp3–129

23) Mavroudis C, Jacobs JP: Introduction. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69 Suppl: S1

24) Tchervenkov CI, Jacobs JP, Weinberg PM, et al: The nomenclature, definition and classification of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cardiol Young 2006; 16: 339–368

25) Jacobs JP, Franklin RC, Wilkinson JL, et al: The nomenclature, definition and classification of discordant atrioventricular connections. Cardiol Young 2006; 16 Suppl 3: 72–84

26) Jacobs JP, Anderson RH, Weinberg PM, et al: The nomenclature, definition and classification of cardiac structures in the setting of heterotaxy. Cardiol Young 2007; 17 Suppl 2: 1–28

27) Franklin RC, Béland MJ, Krogmann ON; International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: Mapping and coding of nomenclatures for paediatric and congenital heart disease. Cardiol Young 2006; 16: 105–106

28) Jacobs JP, Franklin RC, Jacobs ML, et al: Classification of the functionally univentricular heart: Unity from mapped codes. Cardiol Young 2006; 16 Suppl 1: 9–21

29) Franklin RCG, Béland MJ, Colan SD, et al: Nomenclature for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease: The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) and the Eleventh Iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Cardiol Young 2017; 27: 1872–1938

30) Jacobs JP, Franklin RCG, Béland MJ, et al: Nomenclature for pediatric and congenital cardiac care: Unification of clinical and administrative nomenclature—The 2021 International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) and the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2021; 12: E1–E18

This page was created on 2024-01-12T13:52:44.15+09:00
This page was last modified on 2024-02-27T15:51:11.000+09:00